VIP Class Notes (Raph)[R]

Today we focused on:

We finished last class’ reading and discussed his sea fishing trip in Fiji.


Rare (adj): 1- not common or frequent; very unusual.
E.g.: a rare disease/species
E.g.: The museum is full of rare treasures.
E.g.: The party was a rare occasion/opportunity to see old friends.
E.g.: It’s very rare to find these birds in England in the winter.
E.g.: It’s very rare to find someone who has such skills.

Dairy (n): 1- foods that are made from milk, such as cream, butter, and cheese:
E.g.: She’s has been on a dairy-free diet for many years now.
E.g.: I was advised not to eat too much dairy.

Conducive (adj): 1- providing the right conditions for something good to happen or exist:
E.g.: Such a noisy environment was not conducive to a good night’s sleep.
E.g.: A quiet room is a more conducive atmosphere for studying.

Constitute (v): 1- to be or be considered as something.
E.g.: This latest defeat constitutes a major setback for the president.
E.g.: They felt that our discussions with other companies constituted a breach of our agreement.

The bulk of sth: 1- most of something.
E.g.: In fact, the bulk of the book is taken up with criticizing other works.

Synthetic (adj): 1- Synthetic products are made from artificial substances, often copying a natural product.
E.g.: He was wearing a synthetic fur coat.
E.g.: The product is made with synthetic materials.

Welfare (n): 1- physical and mental health and happiness.
E.g.: There are many organizations that work to ensure animal welfare in the meat and dairy industries.
E.g.: The police are very concerned for the welfare of the child.

Iconic (n): 1- very famous or popular, especially being considered to represent particular opinions or a particular time:
E.g.: John Lennon gained iconic status following his death.
E.g.: Scenes of Parisians dancing in the streets remain iconic images from World War II.

Committed (n): 1- very willing to give your time and energy to something, because you really want to do it, or really care about it.
E.g.: Mark is very committed to finishing his work on time.
E.g.: Raph is very committed to helping Mark improve his English
E.g.: Mark is very committed to studying as hard as he can.

Activist (n): 1- 活动家

Leather (n): 1- 皮革

Fur (n): 1- 毛皮

Greenhouse gases (n): 1- 温室气体


Vegan Fashion is Becoming More Popular

There has been a dramatic increase in the popularity of veganism around the world in the past decade. Many people are becoming vegans in an attempt to lead a lifestyle that is more conducive to helping the planet. Giving up eating meat, dairy and other food from animals constitutes the bulk of changes vegans make to their lives. However, an increasing number of vegans are now extending their beliefs to fashion. There is a considerable increase in the sales of vegan clothing, footwear and accessories. Retailers are marketing products that are free from cow skin and other animal products. Shops are full of synthetic fur coats, plastic belts, and shoes made from tree bark, recycled plastic bottles, rubber and coconut fibre.

Research in the United Kingdom revealed that 42 per cent of shoppers considered animal welfare before buying clothes. The researchers discovered that people of all ages would consider purchasing vegan footwear. The trend in vegan fashion has also reached luxury brands. Designer Stella McCartney has designed a new range of fashion that is free from leather and makes use of recycled products. Her new collection is based on a theme of the iconic sixties pop group the Beatles. Ms McCartney’s father, Paul, was lead singer of the group. She has designed leather-free Yellow Submarine sneakers and colorful fake fur coats. Ms McCartney is a committed animal rights activist.


The store only sells to people who are their membership – The store only sells to people who are their members / who have their membership.

Did you have any experience about sea fishing? – Do you have any experience in/with sea fishing.


Increase: /ɪnˈkriːs//in.krees/