VIP Class Notes (Raph)[R]


Frequency (n): 1- the number of times something happens within a particular period.
E.g.: Complaints about the frequency of buses rose in the last year.
E.g.: The government is worried about the increasing frequency of terrorist attack.

Simultaneous (adj): 1- happening or being done at exactly the same time:
E.g.: There were several simultaneous explosions in different cities.

Smash (v): 1-  to cause something to break noisily into a lot of small pieces.
E.g.: She dropped her cup and watched it smash on the floor.
E.g.: The vase rolled off the edge of the table and smashed.

Reverse (v): 1- to change the direction, order, position, result, etc. of something to its opposite:
E.g.: There is pressure for the president to reverse his decision.
E.g.: The new manager hoped to reverse the decline in the company’s profits.
E.g.: Now that you have a job and I don’t, our situations are reversed.

Tackle (v): 1- to try to deal with something or someone:
E.g.: There are many ways of tackling this problem.
E.g.: I tackled him about his careless work.
E.g.: The president doesn’t know how to tackle the crisis.
E.g.: There is a great deal of indecision over how to tackle the problem.

Prime Minister (n): 1- 总理

Ethiopia (n): 1- 埃塞俄比亚


Ethiopia plants 350 million trees in 12 hours

Ethiopia broke the world record for the most trees planted in a day. Ethiopians planted more than 350 million trees in just 12 hours on Monday. This smashed the record held by India by 50 million. Ethiopia’s government announced the record on Twitter. It revealed that people planted 353,633,660 trees. Ethiopia’s Prime Minister participated in the planting. He congratulated everyone involved in the record for their efforts and for helping the planet.

Ethiopia’s record is part of a strategy to plant 4 billion trees by October. So far, volunteers, businesses and government workers have planted over 2.6 billion trees. Ethiopia is trying to reverse the cutting down of its forests. Less than 4 per cent of Ethiopia’s land is forest. This is down from 30 per cent at the end of the 19th century. Planting billions of trees is the cheapest and most effective way to absorb carbon dioxide and tackle global warming.


Noun = a name of a person, a thing, an animal, a place, etc.
E.g.: cup, computer, table, Shanghai, Emma, flower, umbrella, etc.

Pronoun = a word we use instead of a noun.
E.g.: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, my, mine, their, his, her, hers, yours, our, etc.

Verb = an action = anything you do.
E.g.: to do, to be, to play, to run, to go, to make, to help, to study, to speak, etc.

Adjective = a word that describes a noun or a pronoun.
E.g.: small, smart, big, beautiful, ugly, stupid, great, good, nice, terrible, hot, cold, sunny, etc.

Adverb = a word that describes a verb, adjective or another adverb and answers one of the following questions:

  • How: easily, happily, loudly, quickly, well, slowly, sadly, etc..
  • How often: never, always, every day,  frequently, seldom, often, sometimes..
  • When: now, after, before, early, yesterday, today, soon, since, etc..
  • Where: here, there, home, inside, near, outside, away, everywhere, etc..

Irregular Adverbs

Adjective Adverb
good well
fast fast
hard hard
late late
early early
daily daily
straight straight
wrong wrong, wrongly

For me it’s the first important thing. – For me that’s the most important thing.

My company have many foreigners. – My company has many foreigners. / There are many foreigners at company.

I understand this means. – I understand what this means.

Maybe future day I must talk to the global team, but now I can’t. – Maybe in the future / some day in the future I will have to talk to the global team, but now I can’t


Period: /pee.ree.ud//ˈpɪr.i.əd/

Simultaneous: /ˌsaɪ.məlˈteɪ.ni.əs/

Ethiopia: /ˌiː.θiˈoʊ.pi.ə/

Record (n): /ˈrek.ɚd/

Record (v): /rɪˈkɔːrd/

Key: /kiː/