VIP Class Notes (Raph)

Today we focused on:

We revised a work PPT and then did some reading, focusing on vocabulary.


Relative (n): 1- a member of your family.
E.g.: There weren’t many people at the wedding – just close relatives.
E.g.: All her close relatives came to the wedding.
E.g.: The children are being cared for by a relative.

Work on (phr v)to spend time repairing or improving something.
E.g.: His dancing technique is good, but he needs to work on his energy.
E.g.: I need to work on my pronunciation if I’m to pass the exam.
E.g.: The meal tasted great, but you should work on the presentation.
E.g.: The service is still not good, but the company say they’re working on it.

Massive (adj): 1- very large in size, amount, or number.
E.g.: They have a massive house.
E.g.: She was wearing massive gold earrings.

Constitute (v): 1- to be or be considered as something.
E.g.: This latest defeat constitutes a major setback for the president.
E.g.: They felt that our discussions with other companies constituted a breach of our agreement.

The bulk of sth: 1- most of something.
E.g.: In fact, the bulk of the book is taken up with criticizing other works.

Conducive (adj): 1- providing the right conditions for something good to happen or exist:
E.g.: Such a noisy environment was not conducive to a good night’s sleep.
E.g.: A quiet room is a more conducive atmosphere for studying.

Dairy (n): 1- foods that are made from milk, such as cream, butter, and cheese:
E.g.: She’s has been on a dairy-free diet for many years now.
E.g.: I was advised not to eat too much dairy.

Vegan (n/adj): 1- a person who does not eat or use any animal products, such as meat, fish, eggs, cheese, or leather.
E.g.: Vegans get all the protein they need from nuts, seeds, and cereals.
E.g.: She decided to turn vegan after watching a documentary about how poultry (家禽) is raised.

Synthetic (adj): 1- Synthetic products are made from artificial substances, often copying a natural product:
E.g.: He was wearing a synthetic fur coat.

Welfare (n): 1- physical and mental health and happiness.
E.g.: There are many organizations that work to ensure animal welfare in the meat and dairy industries.
E.g.: The police are very concerned for the welfare of the child.

Accessories (n): 1- something added to a machine or to clothing that has a useful or decorative purpose. 2- 饰品
E.g.: She wore a green wool suit with matching accessories (= shoes, hat, bag, etc.).
E.g.: Sunglasses are much more than a fashion accessory.
E.g.: I went shopping for clothes and accessories last week.

Submarine (n): 1– 潜艇

Tree bark (n): 1- 树皮

Cotton (n): 1- 棉

Leather (n): 1- 皮革

Fur (n): 1- 毛皮

Greenhouse gases (n): 1- 温室气体


Vegan Fashion is Becoming More Popular

There has been a dramatic increase in the popularity of veganism around the world in the past decade. Many people are becoming vegans in an attempt to lead a lifestyle that is more conducive to helping the planet. Giving up eating meat, dairy and other food from animals constitutes the bulk of changes vegans make to their lives. However, an increasing number of vegans are now extending their beliefs to fashion. There is a considerable increase in the sales of vegan clothing, footwear and accessories. Retailers are marketing products that are free from cow skin and other animal products. Shops are full of synthetic fur coats, plastic belts, and shoes made from tree bark, recycled plastic bottles, rubber and coconut fibre.

Research in the United Kingdom revealed that 42 per cent of shoppers considered animal welfare before buying clothes. The researchers discovered that people of all ages would consider purchasing vegan footwear. The trend in vegan fashion has also reached luxury brands. Designer Stella McCartney has designed a new range of fashion that is free from leather and makes use of recycled products. Her new collection is based on a theme of the iconic sixties pop group the Beatles. Ms McCartney’s father, Paul, was lead singer of the group. She has designed leather-free Yellow Submarine sneakers and colourful fake fur coats. Ms McCartney is a committed animal rights activist.