VIP Class Notes (Nemo)[W/R]

Reading


http://www.pinyin.info/readings/defrancis/chinese_writing_reform.html

Writing

The differences between Shanghai dialect and Mandarin are mainly in two aspects. One is pronunciation and the other is vocabulary.Shanghai dialect has absorbed the dialects of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui and other places around Shanghai, and has formed the present language for more than 100 years.The biggest difference between Shanghai dialect and Mandarin is that , there are no pronunciations of “zhi””chi””shi” in Shanghai dialect.Compare to Shanghai dialect ,Mandarin is a younger language. In order to make the whole country has a common language that can be widely used, in 1950’s ,the State Council issued a order to promote Mandarin throughout China. Mandarin is developed based on Beijing pronunciation as the standard pronunciation and northern dialect.

The differences between Shanghai dialect and Mandarin are mainly in two aspects. One is pronunciation and the other is vocabulary. Shanghai dialect has absorbed the dialects of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui and other places around Shanghai, and has formed the present language during more than last 100 years.The biggest difference between Shanghai dialect and Mandarin is that , there are no pronunciations/we don’t pronounce (of) “zhi””chi””shi” in Shanghai dialect. Compared to Shanghai dialect ,Mandarin is a “younger” language. In order to make a common language that/which could be widely used, in 1950’s ,the State Council issued an order to promote Mandarin throughout China. Modern Mandarin is developed based on Beijing pronunciation as the standard pronunciation of a northern dialect.

Vocabulary

flourishing (adj):growing or developing successfully:
E.g.: There’s a flourishing trade in these kind of items.

horde (n):a large group of people:
E.g.: Hordes of students on bikes made crossing the road difficult.

herd (n):a large group of animals of the same type that live and feed together:
E.g.: a herd of cattle/elephants/goats
​2-mainly disapproving a large group of people that is considered together as a group and not separately:
E.g.: Poor Janine – she just follows the herd (= does what all the other people are doing).

herd (v):to make animals move together as a group:
E.g.: An old woman was herding the goats.
​2-mainly disapproving to make people move somewhere as a group, often against their wishes or with difficulty

abrupt (adj):sudden and unexpected, and often unpleasant:
E.g.: an abrupt change/movement
E.g.: Our conversation came to an abrupt end when George burst into the room.

burst into tears/laughter

grind to a halt/standstill-to stop slowly:
E.g.: The car ground to a halt right in the middle of the street.
E.g.: If we don’t do something soon, the industry could grind to a halt (= stop operating).

all-out/full-scale (adj):complete and with as much effort as possible:
E.g.: We made an all-out effort to get the project finished on time.

chronology (n):the order in which a series of events happened, or a list or explanation of these events in the order in which they happened:
E.g.: I’m not sure of the chronology of events.

chronological:(adj) US ​ /ˌkrɑn·əˈlɑdʒ·ɪ·kəl/
E.g.: Give me the dates in chronological order.
chronologically (adv) US ​ /ˌkrɑn·əˈlɑdʒ·ɪk·li/
E.g.: Please give me all the files organized chronologically.

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