VIP Class Notes (Lily) [R]


access= ACK sess

excess= ex SESS


1.porno (pornography)= 污秽的
ex: When I used my windows, there are always porno ads that jump out from nowhere.

2. malware 恶意软件
ex: You must watch for the malware programs on the computer.

3. protocol 协议、协定
ex: the police must follow the standard protocols when there’s a conflict.
ex: the HK police must follow the protocol when they deal with the mad crowd.

4. character 字符(如数字、字母、标点等)
ex: you password should be 8 characters or longer to protect your account

5. multi-factor authentication 多重身份认证
ex: Gmail is using the multi-factor authentication to protect the users’ accounts.

6, compromised 被攻破的
ex: if you are spy and your identity is compromised, you should run for your life.

7. cover is blown= people found out who you are
ex: if you are a spy and your cover is blown, you should run for your life.


It’s a dangerous world out there in cyberspace. Hackers, viruses, and malware, among others, all exist and are very real threats. A 2017 UK government cyber-security breaches survey showed that in the preceding 12 months, just under half of the companies asked had identified an attack or breach. That could have been disastrous.

The problem is not the computers, firewalls or encryption – it’s us. People are bad at following good cyber-security protocol – such as using an effective password. We’re also pretty dumb when it comes to clicking on links and downloading content we shouldn’t, Ian Pratt, co-founder of cyber-security firm Bromium told the BBC. With that in mind, here are three tips to keep you ‘cyber-safe’.

Passwords are a weakness. The ideal password should be at least eight characters long, and contain upper and lower case letters, symbols and numbers. And don’t use a common word such as ‘password’. “This makes you vulnerable to a scrape attack. This is where hackers take the most common passwords and try them on millions of accounts,” Thomas Pedersen from OneLogin, an identity and access management company, told the BBC.

Keep your equipment up-to-date by installing the latest security updates for your computer – obviously. Less obvious perhaps, is doing so for other technology also connected to the internet – such as your router. A recent study carried out by the American Consumer Institute Centre for Citizen Research found that “five out of six routers are inadequately updated for known security flaws.” These require software updates, too. And don’t forget your other smart devices, such as your smart TV!

Finally, consider enabling multi-factor authentication for your accounts. That’s where a mobile phone or dongle is used to verify access to a device. If your password becomes compromised, no access can be obtained without your second authentication device… so don’t lose your phone!  In the future, biometricssuch as voice and fingerprint may make this easier.

The internet is wonderful, but security threats do exist. Fortunately, with a little common sense and forethought, you can be secure from the majority of cyber-security threats.