F2F Class Notes (Nemo)[W]

Grammar

Past Perfect Continuous-an action started in the past and continued up to another point in the past
The past perfect continuous is formed using had + been + present participle. Questions are indicated by inverting the subject and had. Negatives are made with not

Statement: You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.
Question: Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived?
Negative: You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.

Duration Before Something in the Past

We use the past perfect continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. “For five minutes” and “for two weeks”, the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past.

They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.
She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.
How long had you been waiting to get on the bus?
Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.
James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia.
A: How long had you been studying Turkish before you moved to Ankara?
B: I had not been studying Turkish very long.

Using the past perfect continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect.

Examples:

Jason was tired because he had been jogging.
Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.
Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class.

Present Perfect Continuous

The present perfect continuous -an action started in the past and has continued up to the present moment. The present perfect continuous usually emphasizes duration, or the amount of time that an action has been taking place.

The present perfect continuous is formed using has/have + been + present participle. Questions are indicated by inverting the subject and has/have. Negatives are made with not.

Statement: You have been waiting here for two hours.
Question: Have you been waiting here for two hours?
Negative: You have not been waiting here for two hours.

Duration from the Past Until Now

We use the present perfect continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. “For five minutes,” “for two weeks,” and “since Tuesday” are all durations which can be used with the present perfect continuous.

Examples:

They have been talking for the last hour.
She has been working at that company for three years.
What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
James(he) has been teaching at the university since June.
We have been waiting here for over two hours!
Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

2-You can also use the present perfect continuous WITHOUT a duration such as “for two weeks.” Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of “lately.” We often use the words “lately” or “recently” to emphasize this meaning.

Examples:

Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
She has been watching too much television lately.
Have you been exercising lately?
Mary has been feeling a little depressed.

Writing

October 1st is national of all our country. In this year is the found a state for 70 years. In October 1st will have military parade in Tiananmen Square. On October 1, 1949 is the first national day.
Premier Zhou said fly twice when the first national day ceremony plants are not enough. Now don’t need to fly twice, want how much have how much! This time, as you wish.
I love watch the military parade not only like to see the solider but also like see the change of country.

October 1st is national day  of all our entire country. this year we’re celebrating 70th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China. On October 1st there’s going to be a military parade in/on Tiananmen Square. On October 1, 1949 China celebrated it’s first national day.
Premier Zhou said during the first parade “If the plane is not enough, we’ll fly twice” . Now we don’t need to fly twice, now we have everything that we have ever wished for-现在我们拥有了我们所希望的一切
I love to watch the military parade not only like to see the soldiers marching but also I like see the change/ prosperity of of/in country.

Vocabulary

entire (adj): whole or complete, with nothing missing
全部的;整个的;完全的;完整的
Between them they ate an entire cake.
他们两个吃了整整一个蛋糕。
He’d spent the entire journey asleep.
他整个旅程都在睡觉。

this year we’re celebrating 70th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China

prosperity(n): the state of being successful and having a lot of money
成功;(尤指经济上的)繁荣,昌盛
A country’s future prosperity depends, to an extent, upon the quality of education of its people.
一个国家未来的繁荣昌盛在一定程度上取决于国民的教育质量。
The war was followed by a long period of peace and prosperity.
战争过后是长时间的和平与繁荣。

emphasize (v): to show that something is very important or worth giving attention to
强调;重视
I’d just like to emphasize how important it is for people to learn foreign languages.
我只是想强调一下学习外语的重要性。
He emphasized that all the people taking part in the research were volunteers.
他着重指出所有参加这项研究的人都是志愿者。
You can use italics or capitals to emphasize a word in a piece of writing.
你可以用斜体或者大写来强调文章中的某个词。