F2F Class Notes (Nemo)


articles-any of the English words “a”, “an“, and “the“, or words in other languages that do the same job as these

If you ask for ‘a ham sandwich’, you’re using the indefinite article ‘a’ before the noun.
Don’t forget that, before any word beginning with a vowel, the indefinite article would be ‘an‘, for example ‘an interesting book’.

Some words that begin with a vowel letter in writing have a consonant sound:
/ə ju:ˈnaɪtɪd …/ /ə ju:niˈvɜ:sɪti/ /ə wʌn …/
a united group a university a one-year-old child

We use an /ən/ before a vowel sound:
an apple an old shoe an orchestra an umbrella

Some words that begin with a consonant letter in writing have a vowel sound:
/ən aʊə(r)/ an hour
/ən empi:θri: …/ an MP3 player

The vowels in English are a, e, i, o, and u.
consonants are all other letters that are not vowels


come across something-to find something by chance
He came across some of his old love letters in his wife’s desk.

initial –the first letter of a name, especially when used to represent a name
E.g.: He wrote his initials, P.M.R., at the bottom of the page.
E.g.: They carved (雕刻) their initials into a tree.

abbreviation (n): a short form of a word or phrase
“ITV” is the abbreviation for “Independent Television”.
E.g.: What does the abbreviation WHO stand for?
E.g.: The abbreviation WHO stands for “World Health Organization”

to have a systematic approach to your responsibilities

get off work/leave the office

queue (up)/line up (v): to wait in a line of people, often to buy something:
E.g.: Dozens of people were queueing up to get tickets.
E.g.: We had to queue for three hours to get in.
E.g.: Thousands of people lined up to buy tickets on opening night.


vowel – /vaʊəl/